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A BASIC COLLECTION OF JAPANESE WW II RADOS; By Bill Howard Index; Part I, The basic radios that can be found Part II, Publications you should have Part III, Where to find them Part IV, ═Type╬ radio station. Part V, The Type 94-6 radio Part VI, The Type 94-5 Wireless Station Part VII, The Type 94-3A Wireless Station Part VIII, Japanese Aircraft Radios Part IX, Other forms of communication Part X, The military technical reports, & who wrote them. ********************************************************

A BASIC COLLECTION OF JAPANESE WW II RADOS; Part 1 The basic radios that can be found are the Type 94-6, a small one tube transceiver (Two tubes in one glass envelope) and the Type 94-5 which consists of a small one tube transmitter and a separate three tube receiver. These sets are very small and would fit inside a duffle bag with ease, thus the reason they are common today. Being company and battalion level radio systems, See Electric Radio articles by Ken Lakin, these sets were powered by a small hand cranked generator when transmtting and by batteries when receiving.There are a lot of accessories that go with these radios, I have available a cost breakdown which lists most of the accessories, if anyone is interested. The Type 94-3A was used by the Division and regimental stations and are rare items, there being three sets that I know of in private collections. Two in the US and one in England. There was also a Type 94-3B and a Type 94-3C set . Very little is known of the 94-3B. The Type 94-3C was used by the horse cavalry units and while rare, are in existance in private collections. Consisting of a Receiver, transmitter and hand cranked generator. They used plug in coils as did the Type 94-3A set. I have seen ads for the receivers in ARC and elsewhere. Transmitters are much rarer, as are the gnerators. The Type 94-3D seems to be a companion receiver for the Type 94-3A. Any other Army or ground forces set is extremly rare and they seldom show up. Aircraft radios are also rare but they do turn up. With out the case they are worth about $75 to $150 With the case, more. A type 99-5 receiver in the case was found in a New Jersey flea market for $250.00 a few years ago. Japanese Army Aircraft radios that are most commonly found were designated as Type 99-1, 99-2. 99-3, 99-4 , and 99-5. Made up of the receiver, transmitter, dyanamotors and control boxes, they are seldom found in complete condition. Difficult to work on, hard to find schematics for them and of limited appeal to HAM radio operators, these were not brought home in any great numbers. They range in value from one station that was complete,with control boxes, dynamotors and cableing for $65.00 to another set consisting of receiver and transmitter only for $1,200 dollars. Japanese Naval aircraft radios are also scarce items as most of them went down at sea when the plane crashed. Those that survived crashing , crashed on land. Sometimes these sets were captured when an airfield was over run by allied forces. These too had limited appeal to HAM radio operators, were hard to work on , had hard if not imposible to find schematics and were not brought home in any large numbers. While rare items, they are not as valuable as some of the army ground rados. If you like aircratf radios, these are very good examples of enemy aircraft radios. ********************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART II; By Bill Howard Publications you should have In part 1, I described briefly some of the more common grouind radios and a few of the air craft radios. For anyone who is planning on collecting these sets or restoring them to an operational status should first get several important reference works. The basic reference book is a copy of the WW II TM E 11-227 A Japanese Radio Comminication Equipment, issued in Dec 1944 by the war Department. This TM covers all the radios that had been captured and reported on that allied troops were likely to encounter. It shows a picture of the radio and sometimes the complete station. It also provides some details on the set and from the picture and the tube lineup you can usually determine what you have gotten. There is a British equavilent to the above series TMs. Part A covers German radios, Part B covers Italian and Part C covers Japanese sets. These do not give as much detail as the US TM's but they do have a section that explains how to translate data plates, control marking and other Japanese radio terms. This is very useful and most collectors have a copy. The entire series cost $70.00 and is not worth it. TM 30 - 485 was another technical manual put out by the War Department in May of 1943. Titled, JAPANESE-ENGLISH GLOSSARY TECHNICAL COMMUNICATION TERMS. This is difficult to read or use unless you know Japanese . If you find a copy, pick it up. you will find it is useful as you gain experience in translating Japanese. If you can find a local Japanese translator, this will ease his/her task considerably. Most of the more commonly encountered radios, that could be utilized by U.S. personnel became the subject of a technical bulletin. These TB s are a must have item if you are going to work on a set. Thus far, there are two of these TBs floating around and copies usually are sold for about $20 to $25 dollars. More of these have been located and work is underway to obtain copies. Thus far TBs on the Type 94-5 Station and the Type 94-6 set are in existance. Both of these sets have been written about and have had articles published. Dick rollema wrote an article on the Type 94-6 and Ken Lakin has written two articles on the Type 94-5 transmitter and the receiver. He has both sets operational. Ken╠s receiver was a major restoration case but he did it and it came out very well. The last major military publication of WW II on Japanese equipment was TME 30 - 480, ═HANDBOOK ON JAPANESE MILITARY FORCES╬ This covers all aspects of the Japanese Military from Artillery to communication equipment, tanks, and tactics. It was re printed in the 1970's and sold for about $25.00 per copy. Many items not shown elsewhere are shown in this manual. If a copy can be found, make copies of the section on communication equipment if you can not buy the entire book. There is a post war book on Japanese radios as well as other radios done in the 1970s. The text was in Japanese but the pictures will enable you to identify many of the aircraft radios that you may encounter. Once you have identified the set, you can work on the text. There are a series of books done on various aircraft that show the different radios.. It is possible by looking through them to identify a particular component. These books may surface at aviation, book, or gun shows. Since they deal with air craft, they seldom show up at radio related swap meets. In addition to the above books, there are numerous books on the war in the Pacific and they may contain pictures of the various radios in use. Shigeo Sugawa of New York has published several excellent books which show Japanese radios but alas the text is in Japanese. The best book for this type of reference work is a large coffee table book titled, Pearl harbor and the War in the Pacific. It has one page devoted to color pictures of Japanese communication gear. It has an excellent picture of the Type 94 -3A wireless set in the transport Chest. In the next part we will discuss some of the details of where these sets can be found. and a brief discussion of the more common sets. William L. Howard THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ***********************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART III; WHERE DO YOU FIND THESE SETS? A few years ago this would have been an easy question to answer. At Radio swap meets. In the last ten or more years this question has gotten harder to answer. In 1989, we began the 50th Anniversary of WW II and there was a sudden revival of interest in items of WW II. Old radios came out of attics , closets and basements. In 1988, we had a surplus electronic store that made a living selling parts striped from susplus radios and took stuff in on consignment. One day the owner called me and said he had two Japanese radios, was I interested. to make a long story short, I got these two radios for $100.00 each, which at the time, I thought was a bit high but I wanted them. What I got was a Type 94-5 receiver with the leather flaps cut off and a Type 94-3 receiver missing the front cover, a fact I was ignorant of at the time. Since then, I have gotten Japanese radios from a variety of sources. I will list the more lucrative sources. The local ferret. He went to every estate sale, yard sale and HAM Swap meet he heard about. His ability to ferret out radios of all types was amazing. He didn╠t know what they were but if they were Japanese he got them and thus I got them. His main interest was pre 1925 battery powered sets. I also kept my eyes open for them but never found anything he wanted. The local Japanese Militaria dealer. This man is retired and currently runs a business of importing Japanese artifacts. He has a large following and publishes a news letter for Japanese collectors. He sets up at militaria shows and gun shows. He has material coming in from all over and I usually get first crack at a new item. Radio related surplus stores. Sometimes these places take things in on consignment, Get to know them, let them know your interests and when a Japanese whatever comes in, they will call you. Usually, they advise the owner on the value of the set from the perspective of a radio. Usually low as they do not know the collector value, however, you can not count on that. Some people find a Japanese or German radio in their attic and think they have their fortune made, ═Taint So!╬ Japanese Militaria collectors. Many of these people specialize in some aspect of Japanese militaria such as hats or swords or daggers. In the process they pick odd pieces and will usually part with them for a reasonable price. Find out who these people are, get to know them and also stay on the look out for what they are interested in. Other radio collectors. Finding these people is not always the easiest task unless you are a HAM radio operator. The older HAMs are the ones who brought back these radios from their days in WW II. As time passed, they became more successful and had more money, they got better and newer radios and the Japanese radios went to the closet, the attic, etc. The main means for communication, other than radio, were the HAM trader yellow sheets. In more recent times, magazines like the Old Timers Bulletin of the AWA, Electric Radio, and others have carried ads for Japanese radios , both for sale and for trade as well as wanted. Once you have established a network of radio collectors, they watch for things you are interested in and you may get lucky. HAMFESTs and Swap meets, which are always a good place to find radios and radio related items is still a good place to go. I have noticed in recent years that most of the exotic German and Japanese sets are sold long before they get to the show but again you might get lucky. Flea Markets and gunshows. You never know what will show up at a flea market, You have to check them out and keep going back, week after week. Take cash as these people never heard of credit cards and won╠t take checks. Gun shows are much the same. In the 30 plus years I have been going to gunshows, I have never seen very much radio equipment. You can find keys, headphones, coils and other miscellaneous items. It is rare for someone to have radios at a gun show. The militaria shows are a better choice and then most people do not know very much about Japanese radios so they are usually cheaper. Manion╠s Auction Some years back this outfit started taking in items for auction. They have a subscription service. You pay about $35.00 a year and you are able to bid on items in each auction. They have about 5 or 6 auctions per year. They publish a catalogue and some times have excellent photos of the items shown. Their ability to determine what an item is and accuratly describe it is sometimes questionable. An experimental Japanese walkie talkie was advertised as a telephone. Some times it is just cord and plug with Japanese markings. Whatever the item is worth and or sold for, they add on a percent comission which the buyer pays as well as tax and shipping. The $75 dollar bargain quickly becomes a $100+ item. Increasingly the inter net and radio collectors groups are proving to be a good source for these items. I recently got two Japanese radios from a collector in Colorado who told me about a supply of Japanese crystals in a local surplus store. Through his efforts, I got the crystals. I would never have known about him or the crystals were it not for a radio collecting group of which I am a member. In the same way, I was able to help a collector in Maryland get field telephones and a switchboard from a local shop that he would never have know about. You can also consider a small picture ad in the local newspaper or if you spend your vacation in one area, consider taking out an ad in the local paper. Make it big enoughnfor people to see. Best to include a line drawing of a Japanese radio, some people who have these items do not even know what it is. They may see the drawing and think, ═I╠ve got something like that in the basement╬. In summary, there are many places where these radios and accessories are to be found. It is advisable to have some of the references I mentioned in Part 2 when you get there. In the next part, I will discuss a basic ═Type╬ Japanese radio station and then some specific sets. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 **************************************************

BASIC COLLECTION OF JAPANESE RADIOS , PART IV; In Part 1, we introduced you to some of the most common Japanese radios sets that can be found., in Part 2, we discussed the basic reference works and in Part 3 we looked at where to find some of these radios. Now let us take a look at what makes up a ═Type╬ radio station. The most widely issued Japanese radios were issued in two or more wooden transport chests. These chests had a removable front panel which had a contents list inside under a plastic cover. The chests had leather covered rope handles at each end and may have had a metal carry handle on the top. Usually these chests are found with out the rope handles and if the rope is present, the leather is missing having rotted off many years ago. Typically the No 1 chest contained the transmitter, the receiver and an accessory bag which held all the items needed to set up the station and get ready to go on the air. These accessories were usually the headphones and the key, Sometimes there were two headset/throat mike combos as part of the contents. The actual accessories depend upon the type radio set in question. Typically the No 2 chest contained the antenna wires, counterpoise wires and the hand cranked generator. A radio squad of a Japanese signal Unit had about seven men assignd to it. Two of them were probably engaged in setting up the antenna, one more was unpacking and setting up the generator, two more were busy unpacking the transmitter and receiver and getting them set up. the other two were ═securing╬ the area and the sergeant in charge was making certain everything got done properly. Of course this was the ideal situation and as those of us who were in the military know, you never have all the people you are supposed to have. While the radios can be found, the chests are harder to find. They are also sometimes butchered as the GI who sent it home, wanted it for something else. The inner panels have been removed so something bigger could be put in it. On average these chests have sold for $125.00 when complete. With the inner panels removed, about half of that figure. Sometimes the inside panels can be replaced, but the cost brings the total investment back up to the $125.00 mark. Some stations, such as the Type 94-2 B set came in four chests. One chest held the transmitter, one chest held the receiver, another chest held a gasoline powered generator and the fourth chest held two large cans of gasoline. The chests holding the transmitter and receivers also had many drawers for the other accessories. The generator took up the entire chest as did the gasoline cans. Another chest has been found which held two complete Type 94-6 stations. Two generators, two radios, two accessory packs, two of everthing needed to place the sets in operation. This chest was found with all the contents still in place. Sold to a militaria dealer, it was being sold off piece meal. That made in nice as I was able to find some of the items that I was missing. If it had been mine, I would have been tempted to keep it intact. The GI who brought it home had the forsight to make certain that he had two of everything. I was told he got it from a Japanese supply depot and I agree as most of the items were in un-issued conditon. The larger , portable stations, came in more chests, simply because there were more components. The radio direction finder set came in at least four chests and I suspect there may have been a fifth chest. As a general rule, the GI╠s did not bring home as many chests as they did radios. If you encounter these chests, do not pass them up as you may find the radio to fit it. If nothing else, they can be used to store what ever you have until either the correct chest does show up or the radio(s) for your chests can be found. Among the many accessories that made up a station were: Transmitter Key, Receiver headset, Remote keying cable, Antenna wire, Technical Manual, all of which were in the No 1 Chest. In the other chests, the following accessories were listed on the contents list : Transmitter Coils (4) Headset with cable, Transmitter crystals ( Two Type 3 stored in the drawer with transmitter coils) Voltage Meter ,Chart, Sling (For the radio set, Remote cable to connect transmitter to remote control box, Type 3 Antenna Retriever, Rope (2) Generator Accessory Bag, with Power cable and sling, Antenna Retrievers ( 2 ) Type 3 -B Wooden reels(Like a kite or fishing line with the Counterpoise wires ,Type 2 B Spare Antenna Wire---Inverted L use--Generator, Model Number Type XX, (With hand cranks and 1 small bulb) , No 7 repair Kit, 4 each Type X Dry cell batteries (1.5 volt for filament supply.) Type 92 Battery powered light, an item translated as CANDOL container, 100 grams of solder, 30 meters of rubber covered insulated wire, 2 rolls of rubber cotton tape ( assume it is electrical tape), 1 roll of Cotton tape , 20 grams of 1 mm Hemp yarn , 1 brush, 1 Lube oil (Assume an oil can),2 small blubs 2 cloths (probably for cleaning) 2 neon tubes (Replacement for tuning indicator in transmitter) Assorted screws, resistors , capacitors , 2 # 3 dry cell batteries (1.5 volt for filament), 10 B Batteries (22.5 volt) 2- C Batteries ( 4.5 volt), Dry cell battery for Type 92 small light, 2 - C Batteries As you can tell for the above listing, there was more to a Japanese wireless station than one might imagine. A lot more than what made up a US station., however many of the items that were part of the Japanese station, were items carried by a U.S radio crew but were not considered part of the radio set. The above description is a ═Type╬ Japanese Ground station. An aircraft radio station is some what simpler as it is not transported from site to site but stays with the aircraft. Generally a ═Type╬ aircraft set had a transmitter, a receiver, a vibrator power supply for the receiver, a dynamotor for the transmitter, a junction box to connect to the intercom system and some form of antenna change over control. It is not known if the cabling was considered part of the aircraft or part of the station, but does it really matter? You need the cables to hook everything together. Lamps, candles, solder , batteries and so on were not needed and were not part of the station. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ********************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART V; TYPE 94-6 RADIOS By: LTC William L. Howard In the period following WW I, considerable progress was made in the development of radios. The Japanese, especially the military, followed developments with a great deal of interest. In 1934, the Japanese ground forces adopted several radios as standard equipment. 1934 on the Basic Japanese calander was 2594, usually abbreviated as 94, hence the designation Type 94 - indicating it was adopted in 1934. The most commonly encountered sets are the Type 94-5 transmitters and receivers,(See Articles in the April 1994 and the Feb 1995 issues of ELECTRIC RADIO), the Type 94-3A and Type 94-3C transmitters and receivers, and the Type 94-6 transceiver. The Type 94-6 was a small compact set that used one tube, a double diode and a circuit that has been described as a "rush box". Power for reception came from a battery pack and power for transmitting came from a hand cranked generator. The earliest example found of one of these sets was manufactured in January 1935. It operated on one band, had one tuning capacitor, one filament rheostat and a regeneration control mounted on the top of the set in addition to a socket for connection of two headset/throat microphones and an RF meter. Other controls were on the side and consisted of the transmit/receive switch which was a lever switch and a toggle switch which is the voice/tone switch and the built-in CW key. Below the key was a connection for the power cable from the generator which supplied the required 3 volts and 150 volts. On the opposite side was the power plug that connected the set to the battery pack for use during reception and supplied the required 3 volts and 135 volts. On what must be considered the front of the set as it hung down around the operators neck was another socket into which a special two prong plug fit. To this plug were fastened an antenna rod and a counterpoise rod. The set was housed in a thin walled metal case with a cover that could be opened to reveal access to the controls on the top as well as two charts, one for calibration and one which had a schematic diagram and parts list. This set was then carried in a leather case and hung from the operators neck when in use. After a number of years, experience showed that the one band was not enough to provide adequate coverage and the set was modified to cover three bands. This meant three coils instead of one and a band switch to move from band to band. Rather than develop a completly new radio, the Japanese re-designed the set to make maximum use of existing manufacturing processes. The filament rheostat was moved closer to the outside cover to make room for the band selector switch. The band selector switch was not a rotary switch but more on the order of lever switches controlled by a rotary cam. The next major problem was where to put two more coils. This was solved by moving the battery pack plug socket down to the bottom of the same side. One or two other parts were moved around and now there was room for the other two coils. It is this later version that was captured in some quantity by allied forces and became the subject of a U.S. Army technical manual and a very excellent article done by Dick Rollema, PAOSE, the Netherlands titled "Japan's Hush-Hush Rushbox" which appeared in the March 1986 issue of 73 for Radio Amateurs. According to Dick, his set was manufactured in June 1940. To determine the date of manufacture, the Japanese went to a different system, this time using the year of the Showa Reign. Emperor Hirohito ascended the throne in 1925 so anything made in 1926 would have a year of manufacture of 1. 1935 manufactured sets show the year as 10 and 1940 would show a manufacture year as 15. The months in Japan are the same as the rest of the world with January being shown as 1 and December being shown as 12. Usually the Japanese is written from right to left. For further analysis of the set, one should read Dick's article or consult the U.S. Army Technical Manual on the Set. In addition to the earlier set, another item has surfaced and this is a canvas bag labled as Type 94-6 Wireless Set, Antenna Bag. All models had a leather case that housed the battery pack and also had a small pouch for the accessories, to include the headset/throat mike and power cords. Both the canvas bag and the leather accessory pack are rare items and seldom are found. When found, they are usually not with the radio. The metal and fibre board case that housed the batteries is also a rare item and I have never seen one of these. The three band version of the Type 94-6 is commonly found but very few of the earlier single band sets seem to have survived the war. If you should ever find one, try to obtain it as it is a rare set. Parts list for Japanese Type 94-6 three band set. 1 Antenna connection 17 Metal can capacitor 2 Counterpoise connector 18 250 ohm wire wound resistor 3 RF meter 19 Transformer 1:20 4 Mica capacitor 450 1500 20 Transformer 5 Coil 21 Mica capacitor 450 1500 6 Variable capacitor 22 CW key assembly 7 Mica capacitor 450 1500 23 Tone/Voice toggle switch 8 Mica Capacitor 450 1500 24 Headphones/mike socket 9 Coil 25 Generator power socket 10 Regeneration control 29K 26 Battery plugs connection 11 RFC 27 Mica capacitor 4500 1500 12 Mica capacitor 450 1500 28 Carbon resistor 13 Mica Capacitor 450 1500 29 Band switch 14 Tube socket 30 Coil 15 Transmit/receive switch 31 Coil (mounted on # 9) 16 Filament rheostat 32 Mica capacitor 450 1500 These sets came two per transport chest. The transport Chest held the following items: TRANSPORT CHEST FOR TYPE 94 - 6 RADIOS The Type 94 - 6 radios were transported in wooden chest. The chest held two complete radio sets with all accessories. The chest was organized as show below. The designations of compartments A, B, C, etc is my own designation and not the Japanese. ________________________________________________________________________ A Drawer B C _________________________________________ Compartment D Compartment E ________________________________________________________________________ Compartment F Compartment G ________________________________________________________________________ Compartment H Compartment I ________________________________________________________________________ Compartments A and C: Contained the Type 21 E Hand cranked Generator. Compartment D and E : Contained the Type 94 - 6 Radio, Mark 32 Transmitter , case and a UZ 30 Tube. one other item, believed to the the antenna and counterpoise connector. Compartment F and G: Contained the Accessory pack which held the battery box, 6 Type B-18 22 1/2 Batteries, 2 -1.5 volt filament batteries, 2 - Type J Headset/throat mikes,1- UZ 30 MC tube, 2 - items, I could not translate which I believe are the battery cables and plugs. Too big to fit in the compartments but stored on top over both compartments were the Canvas Antenna Bag with one Antenna rod (4 sections, joined) and the Counterpoise rods (2 sections, joined) Compartments H and I: These each contained 6 spare B- 18 B batteries ( 22 1/2 volts) and 2 spare 1 1/2 volt filament batteries. Drawer B: Detailed list of contents on the next page The pull out drawer contained the following items in the quantity indicated.: Unidentified item (4) * Screws (10) 3mm/25mm (5 ea) 2.6/15mm (5 ea) Generator Maintenance kits (2) Screws (10) 3mm-2.6mm (5 ea) unidentified item (2) item 10 meters long Screws (10) 3mm 2.6mm (5 ea) unknown item 2XB (1) unknown item (1) Screws (10) 3mm 2.6mm (5 ea) unknown item (1) unknown item (1) Unknown item(1) UZ 30 MC tubes (2) unknow item(1) Unknown item (4) Unknown (1) ________________________________________________________________________ The following items are known to be associated with these sets and have not been identified somewhere else. Generator brushes (4) - part of generator maintenance kit Oil Cans (2) - part of generator maintenance kit Battery cables, 2 per set Generator cable 1 per set Technical Manual(s) Antenna wires( rubber covered wires that can be used with a short bamboo stick. (2) Antenna/counterpoise connector 1 per set The following items were contained in the chest according to the photographs supplied: Small volt meter, used to check the generator (1) and two leads (2). Three documents Small paper satchel (probably contained screws) Two four pin plugs for the headset/throat mikes (2) 1 item(appears to be a wire wound rheostat) Small metal container with paper label (Could be nuts for the screws) * I have used the term screws very loosely. There are apparently two thread pitches 3 mm and 2.6 mm. Screws are also 15 mm and 25 mm in length. There are also nuts, lock washers, etc included in the generic term screws I am currently waiting for a better translation of the contents list. What is this set currently worth. Based on prices paid, prices that I have been told that people paid for items or just a general ═fel╬ for what things should cost, I have compiled the following list of items that make up the set and the approximate value of the items. The Japanese Type 94-6 Transceiver What is this set worth? 1998 This set is the smallest of the WW II Japanese sets that can be found even today. It was a "neat" war souvenier and was small enough that it could be easily transported in a G.I.'s duffle bag. These sets can be found in varying conditions and with varying accessories. Prices range from a low of $12.00 at an auction to $1700.00 paid by a Japanese collector. With this range, I have attempted to establish some values. Type 94-6 Transceiver with original tube in near mint condition with all accessories to include the hand-cranked generator, accessory pack $1700.00 Type 94-6 Transceiver, chassis only, no tube with broken meter $ 35.00 Type 94-6 Transceiver in case, missing T/R switch $ 50.00 Type 94-6 Transceiver in case, less data plates $ 300.00 Type 94-6 Transceiver, in case, with tube, no damage $ 500.00 Leather or rubberized canvas carrying case $ 40.00 Accessories Type 21 F Hand-cranked generator, operational, no damage and with all data plates and power cord $ 350.00 Type 21 F Hand-cranked Generator, damaged or missing parts, cables, data plates $ 200.00 Generator Maintenance kit, un-issued $ 100.00 Headset/throat mike, complete, good condition $ 365.00 Headset/throat mike in poor condition or missing any parts $ 25.00 Battery cables and plugs (Rare item) $ 50.00 Accessory pack, leather pack which holds battery box, less the battery box and accessories (Rare item) $ 125.00 Accessory Pack, with battery container, in unissued condition $ 250.00 Battery box by itself $ 50-$75 Antenna and counterpoise rods $ 150.00 Antenna/counterpoise connector (Two prong plug) $ 35.00 Antenna bag, less than perfect condition $ 20.00 TB Sig E ____ U.S. Army manual on the set(Photocopy)$ 25.00 TB Sig E ____ Original copy $ 35.00 Seldom does one find a complete set with all the accessories. The generators and the other accessories show up from time to time but they are hard to find. The set derives its value from being complete. An extremely rare set that must have been a pilot model which was built in the mid 1930's and did not have the band switch or filament rheostat and had the battery and generator sockets in a different location was recently seen so they too are out there. For those not familiar with the history of technical intelligence in WW II, there was a program called the JAPLATE Program which required that all data plates from captured equipment be sent to Washington, D.C. so that economic intelligence could ascertain who was making what and how many were being made. While economic intelligence found this useful, it rendered the technical intelligence company unable to determine what models had what changes. This accounts for the number of sets that are missing data plates. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ***********************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART VI; The Japanese Type 94-5 Wireless Station, The Type 94 - 5 was considered the Company and Battalion level sets. The Battalion signal company would send a radio team down to each company to provide communication back to the battalion. The battalion also used these sets to stay in touch with regimental headquarters. The set was transported in two chests. I have never seen the No 2 chest but assume there must have been one. The No 1 Chest held the transmitter, the receiver and the accessory bag. It is assumed the No 2 chest held the generator and everything else. This station is made up of a receiver, a transmitter, a hand cranked generator and related accessories. The transmitter is a small, one tube set, powered by a hand cranked generator. A detailed analysis of the set was done by Ken Lakin in Electric Radio Magazine. Ken got the set on the air using a US type 19 tube, which has a 1.5 volt filament rather than the 6 volt UZ 12 C tube, which is a very rare tube. He also used a power supply as he did not have a hand cranked generator. Even with the generator, I doubt he could have talked his wife into cranking it! This also explains why most GI╠s did not bother to bring home the generators, a major factor in the high cost of finding a generator today! Ken also got a Type 94 - 5 receiver that was out of the case and in very poor condition. He did a marvelous job of restoring the set, probably more work than anyone else would consider doing. This set was also described in an article in Electric Radio. I can not say very much more than Ken about the technical aspects of the set. This set was one of the sets that was the subject of a technical bulletin in WW II as it was felt that these sets could be used by U.S. personnel to supplament their own communication systems. The transmitter is a 5 watt transmitter and the range is adequate for it╠s intended purpose. For HAM radio use, it will reach out but does not have the range the more power ful sets have. By comparison, a Citizens Band radio, which is limited to 5 watts has a range of about 5 miles in a mobile unit, more when operating a base station. With a good antenna system, the range is increased considerably. Seldom does one find these sets together. You may be lucky and find the receiver and then go looking for the transmitter or as was the case with Ken Lakin, find the transmitter first and then go looking for the receiver. These sets came in metal cases which had leather side flaps and top and bottom flaps. In many cases, the GI who brought the set home, cut the leather flaps off as it makes the set easier to use and easier to display on a shelf., however it cuts down the value considerably. The first set I got had the leather flaps cut off. After that, I picked up sets with leather flaps. I was very fortunate to get both receiver and transmitter and accessory case in the transport chest along with numerous accessories. Interestingly enough both transmitter and receiver had matching serial numbers, a rare find. Both transmitters and receivers had carrying slings and were also fitted with hooks for a back pack. Shortly after this set came in, another transport chest was located but the inner compartment dividers were removed. I have been fortunate to find almost all of the accessories for these sets but am still looking for a generator and the power cable. I was loaned a generator by Lou Demers for study so have many excellent photos of the generator. I also made up some power cables but have yet to find a genuine one. WHAT IS THIS SET WORTH?? Japanese Type 94-5 Radio Set In 30 years of collecting military relics, I had never seen any Japanese radios. In 1987 I found one Type 94-5 receiver. Then in 1992 these sets began to show up all over. Military shows, Radio Magazines and the Inter net. As a result, I have established the following guide lines for establishing a fair value for these sets. I have generally gone for the higher prices on these sets as that represents the top dollar value. Many of the items can be found for a lot less. Type 94-5 Receiver in near mint condition $350.00 Less the leather flaps, deduct -$ 50.00 Less operational tubes at $20.00 per tube -$ 60.00 Damaged Case: Visible damage, deduct - $ 30.00 per item This includes missing hinges, data plates, extra holes Invisible Damage - $ 20.00 per item This includes missing battery cables, missing battery plug Damaged Receiver Missing a control dial or knob -$ 30.00 Missing a major component, capacitor, rheostat ,panel -$40 to -$50 per item Missing a major, non panel component such as transformers -$20.00 per item. Missing a minor component, resistor, capacitor -$5 to -$10 per item. Receiver only, complete, no case $75.00 Type 94-5 Transmitter in near mint condition $300.00+ With original UZ 12 C tube with good filament, add $ 82.00 Less Leather Flaps, deduct - $ 50.00 Visible and invisible damage, same as for the receiver It should be noted that these transmitters were rarely used by HAMs and seldom show any signs of damage. They are usually missing the original tube and seldom have any crystals. They are relatively rare items, there being about one transmitter for every three receivers. Accessories for the Type 94-5 set Transport case, complete with all shelves, holders and parts list $200.00 Missing the shelves $125.00 F19 Hand cranked generator (very rare item) $325 to $500 Generator Power cable (Another rare item) $50 to $75 Headset/throat mike, complete, operational, with plug $150.00 missing the mike or the plug $ 25.00 Most of these have deteriorated cables, decomposed rubber boots. Mike rubber straps are badly stretched. Headphones usually do not register on continuity checks so test with a 9 volt battery. Accessory bag ( A rare item) $75.00 Key, with base, cable and plug $75.00 Transfer cable, receiver to transmitter, with both 5 pin plugs $50.00 Receiver bench test power cable,usually found missing one end $25.00 Antenna, antenna lead in, counterpoise wire, These are rare items, get good documentation on these items as any copper wire can be claimed as AOriginal@ and stuck on bamboo insulators. $30.00 per item if documented Seldom does one encounter the accessories and when found may be cheaper because the owner does not know what they are. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ************************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART VII; WW II JAPANESE TYPE 94-3 A WIRELESS STATION By: LTC William L. Howard A reasonably rare Japanese Wireless set is the Type 94 - 3 A Wireless Station. There are three known examples in the United States and one in England. While there may be others, they have not surfaced. I was fortunate to obtain a complete set, in the transport case as well as an accessory chest. Of the known sets, mine is probably the most complete. Several of the WW II Japanese sets became the subject of Technical Bulletins designed to show the American troops how to use the set if captured. Unfortunately the Type 94-3 A set was not one of them so there is very little known about this set. The set was first written about in the WW II TM 11-227 A on Japanese Radios. This was a cursory description, designed more as an identification guide than a technical study. It is officially designated as the Type 94 - 3 A Wireless set, Mark 36 Transmitter, Mark 36 Receiver and another set is identified as having a Mark 36 Type D Transmitter and a Mark 36 Type D Receiver. The Data Plate also has the designation SP 3 in English and the set is sometimes called the SP 3. The Type 94-3 A set with the Mark 36 Transmitter and Receiver is listed as CW only. The set with the Mark 36 D Transmitter and receiver is listed as Voice and CW. The set is transportable by pack animal, being loaded on two pack horses or on a Class C transport wagon. The set, at wars end came in three transport chests, although the Army TM indicates two chests.. Chest No2, which I have never actually seen, must be the chest shown in TM -E-30-480" Handbook on Japanese Military Forces@ and contained the Model 29 E hand cranked generator, power cables, a pull out drawer which contained the transmitter coils, a compartment with spare tubes and a compartment which probably contained headsets and keys as well as antenna wires.. Chest No 1, which is shown in the photograph housed the transmitter, the receiver and the receiver battery box on the left side. On the right side was a drawer which when pulled out revealed three compartments. Four of the receiver coils were stored in two green felt padded spaces. The center compartment contained other accessories. Above the drawer was a small area which was probably used to store the technical manual and possibly message pads. Above this space was a compartment with a removable front panel. The set shown in the book, APearl Harbor and the War in the Pacific@ shows spare tubes in this compartment. The inventory chart inside the chest cover was for the No. 2 chest so it was of no help in identifying what was supposed to be in there. The compartment was probably designed to hold the key, and the headset. It may have housed the remote control unit for remote keying. The Army TM on Japanese Communication Equipment shows a small chest housing the four transmitter coils, with an empty center compartment. This small chest was the drawer from Chest No. 2. The contents list for Chest No 2 indicates four coils which were the transmitter coils. Chest number 3 which is designated as the Accessory Chest, It has an open space at the top and three drawers which pull out. The bottom right drawer was designed to hold spare batteries for the receiver and for the flashlight. The center drawer was for a variety of small parts such as resistors, capacitors and screws as well as oil can, cleaning cloths , spare bulbs and neon indicator bulbs. The drawer on the left was to hold solder, wire, friction tape and hemp yarn. The open upper compartment was to hold a No 7 repair kit, more batteries, a Type 92 flashlight, although this is not confirmed and more receiver filament batteries. It also held an item that was translated by Mr. Takashi Doi as ACANDOL@ which I originally assumed was a holder for a candle or perhaps an alcohol burner used to heat the soldering iron in the tool kit. Later information was that a blow torch was used to heat the soldering iron. The candle container was most probably the leather case that contained a candle lamp that was collapsible. The tool kit held a soldering iron, a screwdriver, a pair of tweezers, a pair of pliers and a combination wrench set of three wrenches joined at the center. I was able to come up with this repair kit but it was missing the screwdriver The soldering iron cleaned up nicely but the other tools were so badly pitted that I had them re-chromed.. In addition to the items in the chest, the inventory list also had a note that the antenna pole sections were to be in a canvas case fastened to the chest. The antenna was a flexible, single strand wire, 66 feet long, light yellow in color suspended between two jointed poles of alloy pipe that were 23 feet high. There must have been 16 of these poles. In addition, there were also two ground wires, a black one 33 feet long and a brown one 66 feet long. The radio proper is housed in a metal case inside the No 1 transport chest. The front cover has three catches which must be released to allow removal of the cover. Inside the cover are the schematic diagrams protected by an isenglass cover. There are also two calibration charts which can be removed, from the metal frame holder. The radio set with the Mark 36 Transmitter and receiver is a 15 watt transmitter capable of CW used for medium range communication. The Army TM states that it is ideally suited for guerilla warfare, since it can be used for months without replacements or battery charging. Chromium plated surfaces make it suitable for use in the tropics. It was used between divisions and regiments. The No 3 platoon of the Division signal company was issued ten of these sets. Each section consisted of one NCO and 6 men. These sections were then dispatched to the various regiments and division troops as needed. In the same fashion, the regimental signal company sent sections down to the battalions and to regimental gun battalions. It uses a UZ 510 B tube in the transmitter which can be replaced by a US 807. The transmitter requires 500 volts for the plate supply and 7 volts for the filament supply . This is provided by a hand cranked generator. The army TM shows a power cable with a solid plug that plugs into a socket. The actual power connection strip is capable of accepting both a plug and a cable with spade lugs. This may have been done so the set could be powered by both the hand cranked generator and a power supply run from an AC line. One would assume that a division headquarters would have a large generator producing AC to operate all the devices that would have been there. The transmitter covers 0.4 MC to 5.7 MC. There are 5 transmitter coils, 1 through 4 are simple plug in coils. Number 5 coil has a switch marked 1 or 2. Four coils stored in a chest and the fifth was plugged in to the set. The transmitter has a built in key and provision for connecting an external key, as well as connecting to a remote control. Keying is in the negative high voltage lead, which with 500 volts can lead to a nasty shock if using the front panel key. The transmitter is crystal controlled and by removing the crystal, the master oscillator is connected and tuning is accomplished manually. To the best of my knowledge, no examples of the remote control box exist. The schematic diagram shows a patch cord with plugs on both ends. I have the patch cord but not the remote control. Maybe some day a sample of this device will surface. The receiver is a five tube six stage superheterodyne. Rf circuits are trimmed by adjusting circuit inductances and capacitance. Inductances can be reached from the top when the set is removed from the case. The detector has a Rheinartz type regeneration controlled from the front panel. The receiver covers 0.35 MC to 6.0 MC and is capable of voice and CW reception. The receiver is powered by four Mark 18 B dry cells, 22.5 volts each and One Mark 3 square model dry cell for the filaments and a Mark 129 C cell for bias supply. The batteries are kept in a drawer at the bottom of the set and wired to a socket that mates with a plug on the back wall of the case. The battery compartment has a cover, probably fibre board with a wiring diagram for the batteries, which was missing from the set which I obtained. In this article I have given only superficial coverage to the transmitter and receiver because Ken Lakin has one of these sets, has it operational and is writing a more detailed article on the set, its circuitry and its performance. Since he is better qualified to discuss the electronics than I am, I leave the readers to await his article. As a collectors item this set is very desirable and scarce. This set had serial number 3524 The date of manufacture in Japanese is shown as 2 1 and 6 1, which means the set was made in December 1941. Ken Lakin has the set with the transmitter serial number 3984 which was made in October of 1937. so it can be inferred that there must have been at least 3984 sets made prior to 1938. This however is doubtful as these sets were issued on the basis of 10 per Division Signal company. I suspect that it is more likely that serial number blocks were assigned to an assembly point and they used them as they put these sets together. In the No. 1 transport chest and with the No 2 Chest and the No 3 Accessory Chest this is a very rare set. I have hopes that some day the No 2 chest will turn up, maybe even with a generator! And maybe I will find the correct front cover for the NO. 1 Chest! In the meantime, I am looking for a Number 3 receiver coil and the Number 3 and 4 transmitter coils. If anyone has additional information on the set and would like to share it, contact me by mail or e-mail at wlhoward@gte.net . Japanese Type 94 - 3 A Wireless Set, Contents of Chest No 1 This chest housed the Transmitter, receiver, battery drawer and the receiver coils. I have the set in the chest but somewhere the covers of the No 1 and No 2 chests were switched.. The following accessories have not been listed in some other chest so it can be assumed that they were kept in this chest. They include: Key for transmitter ( Chest No 1) Remote cable to connect transmitter to remote control box Antenna wire 66╠ yellow, rubber covered wire ( Chest No 1). Headset with cable, possibly 1 set.(Believe one set was in Chest No 2) Remote Control Box(Model, make, etc unknown) There is a remote control box for this set that consist as a minimum a battery, a jack for the plug and line terminals. This could have been made small enough to be stored in the top open compartment. Thus far, this item has never been seen or photographed so do not have any information on it. I received a letter from Mr. Takashi Doi, who has been in contact with a former member of the Japanese Army who used this set in China. The old soldier said he only used the remote control unit, once in China on a large military exercise. For the most part, the remote unit was used with larger high power ground transmitters. In another letter discussing the candle, the old soldier said they never used the lamp as it was hard to clean. They just stuck the candle on a small plate or even stuck it on the radio set! Typical of a soldier, not going to make any extra work for himself. Japanese Type 94-3 A Wireless Station Accessory Chest No 2 contents Contents of the No 2 Chest of the Type 94-3 A Wireless Station This is based upon a translation of the contents list inside the front cover It is also based upon an examination of several pictures. The chest appears to be the same size as the No 1 Chest which contains the receiver, transmitter, battery box and receiver coils. The approximate dimensions are 24 ═ wide, 20 ═ high and 8 ═ deep. (The front cover of the No 2 chest fits the No. 1 Chest so they must both be the same size. The chest is divided into two halfs. Presumably each is about 11 ═ wide. The right side is open. At the bottom the Type 29 E hand cranked generator is stored. In the upper compartment spare tubes were shown in a picture. Japanese tube boxes are 2 1/4 inches square on the end and there were three rows. The compartment must have been at least 7 inches high. The compartment for the generator must have been 12 ═ high, as the generator dimensions are given as 9 by 5 by 10 ins.. The compartment on the left had three sections. The top section was a pull out drawer and I assume the others were also pull out drawers. The top drawer was used to store the four transmitter coils that were not in use.There were two coils on each side in their own compartment. The coils are 2 1/2 ═ in diameter and are 3 1/2 ═ high when stored. By default the center section was 7 ═ wide and was divided into two smaller compartments. The drawer then must have been 6╬ to 8╬ deep. 11 + ═ wide and 3 1/2 ═ high. The remaining two drawers then would have been 16 ═ high or 8╬ high per drawer. Accessories that were listed on the contents list Transmitter Coils (4) Headset with cable, possibly 2 sets. Transmitter crystals ( Two Type 3 stored in the drawer with transmitter coils) Voltage Meter Chart Sling (For the radio set) Connection Codes for Test Type 3 Antenna Retriever, Rope (2) Generator Accessory Bag, with Power cable and sling Antenna Retrievers ( 2 ) Type 3 -B Wooden reels(Like a kite or fishing line with the Counterpoise wires of 33 ╦ and 66 ╦ black and brown Type 2 B Spare Antenna Wire---Inverted L use-- Generator, Model Number Type 29 E (With 2 hand cranks and 1 small bulb) Japanese Type 94-3A Wireless Station Accessory Chest No 3 contents. Translated by: T. Doi The chest has three drawers and an open upper space divided in to two compartments. The upper left compartment contains a No 7 repair Kit The upper right compartment contains the following items: 4 each Mark 3 Dry cell batteries (1.5 volt for filament supply.) Type 92 Battery powered light (Some form of flashlight)(Not confirmed ) Item translated as ═Candle container╬ ( Have found a candle container that is part of the candle lamp, so assume the candle lamp╠s leather container which housed a collapsible lamp and two spare candle containers must be what is referred to as Candle container ) The bottom left drawer contained the following items: 100 grams of solder 30 meters of rubber covered insulated wire 2 rolls of rubber cotton tape ( assume it is electrical tape) 1 roll of Cotton tape (This is a fabric tape used to repair book covers, etc.) 20 grams of 1 mm Hemp yarn The right side upper drawer contained the following items: 1 brush 1 Lube oil (Assume this is the Generator Maintenance Kit with an oil can & Brushes) 2 small blubs (Assume for the Type 92 Flashlight but could be for the generator) 2 cloths (probably for cleaning) 2 neon tubes (Replacement for tuning indicator in transmitter) Assorted screws in the following sizes 2.6 mm x 15mm 3mm x 15 mm 4mm x 18mm 4 ??? 10 2.6mm x 3mm ? ( possibly nuts ? ) 10 2.6mm x x 3mm ? ═ 10 2.6mm x 3mm ? ═ 2 5 K ohm resistors 1 50 K ohm resistor 2 capacitors 1,500 v - 18.000 cm 1 capacitor 1,000 v - 18,000 cm and 9,000 cm 2 - 800 v 0.5 uF capacitors 1- 1,500 v- 0.5 uF capacitor 2 unidentified objects Bottom right drawer 2 - Mark 3 dry cell batteries ( 1.5 volt for filament) 10 B Batteries (22.5 volt Mark 18 B) 2- C Batteries ( 4.5 volt probably the Mark 129 Batteries) Dry cell battery for Type 92 small light 2 - C Batteries (?) (probably more of the Mark 129 batteries) THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM ************************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART VIII; Japanese Aircraft Radios Both the Japanese Army and Navy had their own aviation branches and there were many types of aircraft. It sometimes seems that there were as many radios as there were air craft. Aviation radios are not well documented. I suppose that it was felt that since the allied forces could not easily make use of these sets, there was no need to prepare technical bulletins on the sets. Then too, the allies were more interested in teaching the troops to recognize the airplane and not the radios, after all they would see the plane long before they saw the radio. The best (?) only reference work that said anything about aircraft radios, other than the TM mentioned in Part 2 of this series, was a post war book done by the Japanese in the 1970╠s. Very costly, now out of print and with a Japanese text, it does provide some good photos of some sets. It really only covers the basic Army aircraft sets. These sets are the Type 99 series radios. There is a Type 99-1, 99-2, 99-3, 99- 4 and the 99 -5 sets. In my collection I have the Type 99-1 receiver and the Type 99 -3 receiver. A fellow collector in New Jersey picked up the Type 99-5 receiver at a flea market. These sets for the most part have been found with out the case or dust cover as the Japanese term the outer case. The Type 99 -1 set has the same 1930 style tubes as most of their Army ground receivers. By the time the Type 99-3 set came along, they had gone to metal tubes, the MC 803 which appears to be a clone of several of our metal tubes. Both of these sets had long, thin plug in coils and the Type 99-3 coil had a slide in crystal. Neither set had the outer case. Both followed the standard practice of angle iron construction with components mounted on bolt on panels. Power connctions were sturdy plug and socket with a screw in retaining ring to kep the cords from coming out during aerobatic maneuvers. The Type 99-5 set was by far the best condition of the three sets. The outer case came with the set, all tubes and parts were present. The set resembled the HRO sets in that they had a right angle drive tuning capacitor and a long narrow plug in coil for the front of the set. The set also began to take on more the appearanc of having been built on a chassis rather than bolt on panels. In an article on Japanese HRO type sets, I did a long analysis of several Japanese sets. Currently under consideration for publication in a national magazine, I will not discuss it in detail in this series. Suffice it to say that by mid-war, the Japanese began to change their construction practices and produce a series of radios which resembled the HRO sets. Samples have been seen of a radio direction finder that was almost a carbon copy of the pre war Bendix Radio direction finder. It even used US tubes. Japanese Naval aircraft radios are both scarce and poorly documented. The late war TM lists many of these but there are few pictures. There is a series of books done on aircraft and you have to go through them aircraft by aircraft in hopes of finding a picture of what you have just found. Most of these radois were on planes that flew from carriers and were shot down at sea. The Pacific Ocean is now home to many of these sets. The best thing to do with one of these sets is to make cartain it has a data plate, then take a good photograph of both the set and the data plate. Then hope that somebody can find a Japanese translator for you. In addition to photograph and date plates, the tube line up is important. Sometimes the sets can be identified from the tube line up. Ancillary Eqipment There are two main sources of power for these sets, vibrators and dynamotors. Usually the vibrator is a small box with a four oin connector on it. This goes to a cable which then goes to a junction box and then to the the receiver circuit and to the battery which powers the unit. The one I have came with the power cable which was about four feet long.. The rubber was badly deteriorated and was cracking off. Under the rubber cable was a shielded cable. The other major item is the dynamotor. There is a Japanese copy of the HRO set for ground use which is powered by either a recitifier type power supply or by a dynamotor. The dynamotor looked like an old time 1940╠s lunch box painted Olive drab, with a shift lever sticking out the side and with two sockets for plugging cables into the set.. Most aircraft transmitters were powered by dynamotors. In some cases both receiver and transmitter were powered by dynamotors. The Type 96 - 1 Naval Aircraft radio used one of these dual dynamotors. I have one of these units in reasonably complete condition, but nmo cables for it, nor the radios! I addition there were crew station boxes, antenna change over relays as well as antennas. These are rare items as for the most part were part of the airplane and hard for the GI to ═Steal╬ in his quest for war souveniers.Antennas likewise were part of the aircraft and not brought home in any great quantity. Aircraft mikes were usually mounted inside a mask with a soft chamois like face piece. These were eventually plugged in to the transmitter. Headsets consisted of two ear phones with two cords. The earphones mounted in the cloth or leather flying helmet and the cords plugged in to a junction box on a cable and the cable plugged in to the radio receiver, via the crew station box. These accessories usually show up as part of something else. I picked up a pair of aviation headphones and a mike that were with some other set. Even rarer sets are the Mobile wireless sets which were on vehicles and the radios on boats that were used for coastal patrol. I have seen these in the National Cryptologic Museum. Some of the other sets that have existed have been part of a large collection of Japanese items that were sold as a lot to a buyer in Japan. Japanese forces had about three major types of tanks and some were equipped with radios. These sets are also among the rare sets I have never seen an actual tank radio but have seen pictures of the sets. I have heard rumors about sokeone have a tank radio but I have not seen it. Again, remember that most tanks when hit with artillery fore or shaped charge rounds were completly scorched in side to include the radio. As a result, this was not a good war souvenier for the average GI. ═There were bettter pickin╠s else where!╬ Tank radios, like aircraft radios were powered by dynamotors that ran off the vehicle battery. At the end of WW II, when Allied Forces occupied Japan, Gen McArthur ordered all Japanese radios destroyed. A bull dozer driven over the radio was enough to discourage anyone from attempting to restore the sets. Another word of caution about these sets is that the Japanese used radium based paint for most of their dials. Many of these sets are still quite hot! They should be kept at the far end of the house! Just for interest, you might want to check these with a geiger counter. All of these sets are sought after by japanese collectors who seem to have plenty of money to spend. I am told that if a set is missing the little red tag that says ═MILITARY SECRET╬ the value drops by $200.00! In the next part, I will briefly discuss wire communication equipment. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ******************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART IX; By William L. Howard In the last 8 parts of this series I have covered the most common Japanese Ground force radios and touched briefly on the radios in aircraft and tanks. It is time to turn our attention to some of the other forms of communication as these were used more by the Japanese forces than radio. Wire Communications There are three types of Japanese field telephones, known to exist. The standard telephone was the Type 92. This is a beautiful piece of workmanship, it is a wooden case with brushed aluminum fittings. The top cover opens to reveal the headset/mike,a second headset, and the line connections. Both the earphone and the microphone are together with a cast metal horn extending down for the mouth piece. There is a push to talk lever along one side of the headphone assembly. The front panel folds down to reveal a rack for two batteries, the removable lightning arrestor and a spare parts kit. Also shown are the bell, generator, and the network components. The lightning arresstor is removed and connected to the terminals on the top. This set should come in a leather case with a long sling and with a brass ground spike which resembles a tent peg. These sets in top condition with all parts can be worth up to $250.00. Missing parts, the value drops rapidly. The lowest price I have heard about was $75.00 for a set less the leather case. The set had a generator crank that screwed in to the side. Often this got lost. Jerry Price of Palm Beach Gardens has a recently made supply of these in case your telephone is missing one. The Model No 2 Trench Telephone This set seems to be a late war development. It was first reported in a British Publication. The two samples that I have seen were both made by the OKI ELECTRIC COMPANY and were so marked in English! The set also came in a leather case. The set was made of wood but did not have the brushed aluminum fittings. The set is more compact than the Type 92 telephone. The set has a side panel that opens to reveal the generator, net work and battery compartment. This set required only one battery rather than the two used in the Type 92 telephone. This set has a generator crank that is built into the drive gear that contacted the armature shaft of the generator. It pulls out, bends to shape and then can be used as a crank. This solved the problem of the removable crank handle getting lost somewhere. This set also has a fibreboard gear wheel to drive the generator and on the sets that I have seen, this gear had been stripped and was non-operational. The Naval Landing Force Telephone This set was made toward the end of the war and reflects a shortage of everything. The set is housed in a laminated plywood case, has the minimum fixtures on it and the three sets I have seen had decals instead of data plates. The actual telephone was inside and resembled a German field telephone but being short of metal, the metal frame was bent to shape and fastened to a wooden base. This set, unlike the other two had a telephone hand set similar to those found on U.S. and German telephones. There was also an ═off set╬ wooden panel which was removeable and held three tools, a screwdriver, a ground spike and a wrench. Seldom does one find all the tools. This set is crudely made by any standards but it contains all the necessary elements of a field telephone. This set derives it╠s value from being used by Naval Landing Forces. Most specimens that I have seen have been sold for $150.00. You could build your own telephone for 1/3 of that and have a set that was equal. Again, it is the collectors of Naval Landing Force material and the relative scarcity of these sets that account for it value. In summary, Japanese telephones, like their rifles and other equipment deteriorated in quality during the course of the war and these items demonstrated that. The naval blockade and the constant bombing of their factories took it╠s toll on production facilities and raw materials. Personally, I would rather have one of our EE 8 telephones any day. JAPANESE 8 LINE CORDLESS SWITCHBOARD There were only three known examples of this telephone switchboard in private hands as of 1997. One was dissassembled and was little more than a collection of parts. I had the second set and a third was recently found in an attic in Oregon and was part of a large collection of Japanese communication equipment that was sold to a Japanese collector. This set is a very compact set and can easily be backpacked by one person. It is contained in a brushed aluminum case with a front panel that folds down to reveal a schematic diagram of one circuit of the 8 and a fold open writing desk. This opens to reveal a set of tools which were missing from my set. Across the top of the switchboard are the connections for the lines from the subscribers. At first I felt that there must have been a top cover which was missing but after looking at the other two sets, I decided there was no top cover. Across the top of the front panel are the drops which have an aluminum cover which is raised when in operation. This cover plate is free and there is nothing to keep it up so the line drops can function. It does have holes in it so I concluded that the incoming wires were fed throught the holes and were used to hold the cover back. Not really a satisfactory solution. Below the drops are a row of holders where tags could be place to indicate which line went to the terminals. Below this were laminated plastic markers numbered 1 through 8. Below these are two rows of lever switches, the top row switches are red, the bottom row were black. On the far right are another set of switches, presumably for the operator. Three drops on the left are also protected by a travel cover. At the top on either side are two panels with ═two holes╬ which are too small for a standard headset/mike plug and to big for a dual pin plug. Something which nobody has yet turned up, went in to these holes. The schematic on the front cover does not reveal what they were for. I assume that this switchboard was designed to be transported in a leather case, which long ago became separated from the switchboard. This set also required the operator to have a telephone as there is no generator for ringing the subscribers. These sets cost more to manufacture as there were more switches than found on a comparable U.S. switchboad of the period. It is, however easier to maintain as there are no cords or plugs to break or get cut. Training of switchboard operators must have taken more time than training of some one to operate the U.S. BD 71 or BD 72 switchboard. JAPANESE 10 LINE CORDLESS SWITCHBOARD This switchboard came complete in two leather packs. One pack housed the switchboard and the second pack held the terminal board and a spare parts kit. This switchboard was painted dark green , unlike the 8 line set. The front panel folded down to reveal the switches and the instruction panels. Unlike the 8 line set, this set had protectors for the drops which were removable but held in place by a short length of chain to keep them from getting lost. Other than the two extra drops, the controls were the same as on the 8 line set. The terminal board unfolded and revealed the screw terminal connections for the lines from the subscribers. These were on a hinged panel which lifted up to reveal a form of lightining arrestor, similar to those found on the Type 92 field telephones. This consisted of fuzes and the spare parts box contained replacement fuzes. This set appears to have been designed for rapid relocation as the terminal board can be quickly disconnected and while one person was packing up the switchboard, the other was disconnecting the the subscribers lines and getting ready to move. JAPANESE 12 LINE CORDLESS SWITCHBOARD The 12 line cordless switchboard is reported to be for use at Battalion and higher levels. Based on it╠s size and construction it is more likely to have been used at a higher level or a fixed facility. It is large, bulky and heavy. It is well made and housed in a wooden chest with anodized aluminum fittings. The chest has handles on both sides which would allow it to be transported by two men. Catches on both sides allow the hinged front cover to fold down, exposing the controls. The cover may be folded back upon itself to make a writing desk for the operator. The example in the photographs show where ink had been spilled making a permanent stain. Across the top are the drops which, like the 8 line switchboard have an aluminum cover which is raised when in operation. This cover plate is released by a catch and held up by the same catch. Below the drops are a row of laminated plastic markers which can be labled as to which drop is connected to what line. Below these are three rows of lever switches, the top row are red, the center row are white and the bottom row are green. On the far right are another set of switches, presumably for the operator. Three drops on the left are also protected by a travel cover as in the 8 line switchboard. Two catches on the side also allow the top cover to be opened revealing the terminals to which the telephone lines are connected. Also visible is the crank handle for the ringing generator as well as two more terminals, presumably for connection to the operators telephone. The top cover shows the schematic and the instructions. The rear covers are hinged in the middle and by by opening the upper panel, access to the internal parts of the switches can be gained. By opening the lower panel one gains access to a metal panel held in place by retaining screws which can be opened. I did not have time to examine this set in great detail but I suspect that possibly the dry cell batteries were installed here to provide power to operate the telephone lines to the subscribers to the switchboard. Signal Lihts At least three types of signal lights have been observed. The Model 100 sugnal Light This set came in a canvas pack and consisted of a periscope tower, a battery box with rheostat, a small tripod. several colored filters and a key switch and power cord. I had to fabricate a power cord and switch before I finally got it working. When extended to its full height, the tower is about four feet above the operators head and appears to have been designed for use in a trench or behing a field fortification. I conclude that it is a rare item as nobody seems to know anything about it, have never seen one and never even saw a picture of it. It would look good standing in the corner of the room bt without the tripod, it loosk like a childs toy. GENERATOR POWERED SIGNAL LAMP This set came in a small wooden box and consisted of the signal lamp head, a case of colored filters, a power cord with a key on it, a box of spare lamps, and a tripod which was missing. The second part of the unit was a hand cranked generator that produces 6 volts. Regular automobile lights can be obtained from an auto parts store which fit this light so replacxement bulbs are not a problem. The crank handle stows under the generator and two sets of folding legs close down and are held in place by leather straps. I have owned two of these generators. One had been butcherd by removal of the power socket and the second had the correct socket but the drive transmission had stripped gears. I did a parts swap and got one that works and one junker, which I sold. For those who may have seen Sam Heaveners catalogue a few years back, he had one of these for sale at a price of $400+ I think. I do not know how complete it was. THE HAND HELD SPRING MOTOR SIGNAL LIGHT This is an interesting signal light and a solution to the difficult task of replacing light batteries. This came in a small case that could be carried on the belt. It had a crank handle that was used to wind a clock work spring motor. Once fully wound, the mtor was started and it powered a small gnerator which provided power for the light. The signal light head was a small brown bakelite case with a brushed aluminum top cover. Beneath the cover were three lenses. red, blue and clear. The lamp head had a contact switch that could be pressed like a key for sending morse code or could be locked in the on position. It had a clip so it could be hung on the uniform or hung above a map or desk. By keeping a few turns on the spring motor, a steady light could be maintained but I would not want to do it for very long. Wound to full tension and allowed to run down, it provided power for about two and a half minutes. These are fairly common items but like everything else are getting scarce as collectors snap them up. I got the one I have from Manion╠s Auction on a bid of $125.00. By the time commission and shipping charges are added to the bid price, the cost went up. In Part 10, which will be the final installment, I will do a quick wrap-up, say a few words about the E.E.I.S. and leave room for Dennis to add any comments on the series which may have come in as it was running. THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756 ***************************************************

BASIC JAPANESE RADIO COLLECTION PART X; We have discussed the radios in general and some in detail. This part will be the wrap up of the series and will be about the reports written and who wrote most of them. Technical reports done during the war seem to fall into about three categories. 1) Technical Bulletins and Technical Manuals which were for the benefit of combat forces so they could identify what they had captured and possibly make use of if it became necessary: 2) Detailed technical reports on items of equipment, done primarily to identify manufacturing facilities as targets for bomber raids. 3) Strategic intelligence assessments of Enemy capabilities or intentions. For the most part the main concern was the development and fielding of new weapons. The Enemy Equipment Identificatin Service, E.E.I.S. was established shortly after the war started. This was the Signal Corps technical intelligence service. EEIS teams were deployed to Europe and were assigned to most of the Corps in the American army. What captured enemy radios they recovered were sent back to the Signal /depot at Camp Holabird, in the midst of Baltimore, Maryland. For those not familiar with the area, it is about halfway between Aberdeen Proving Ground, the Home of Ordnance and Washington, D.C., site of the newly built Pentagon(1942) and the various signal intercept and decoding operations. Some equipment was also sent by them to Fort Monmouth, New Jersey, now about a 2 hour drive but in the 1940╠s must have been a full days drive. By the end of the war in Europe, there were some 6,000 people involved in making technical investigations of the German industrial effort. There was considerable duplication of effort, competition for limited resources and a great deal of confusion as to who was supposed to do what. Then too, there were the French, British and Russians who had their technical investigators. The Pacific war was a different story, almost! As in Europe, we started with almost nothing. A few ordnance and signal officers were sent to Australia where some technical intelligence training was being done at a hastily organized school at the University of Victoria(?) in Melbourne. This handful of people became the basis of the U.S. technical intelligence.( I have a 96 page document on the history of the technical intelligence effort in the Pacific, condensed from the original 150 some pages.) Within a short time the Army realized the mistakes made in Europe and created a centralized facility which was designated the 5220 th Technical Intelligence Company (Composite). Composite and Provisional were the Buzz words of the era. The 5220th sent teams to the forward areas which were made up of people from all the technical services. The equipment was evacuated usually by boat to the central collecting points as military forces moved forward, the central point moved, once to the Phillipeans and then to Japan. The equipment was gone over to see if any changes in design or manufacture had occured. Information of immediate value was sent to the fighting forces, The equipment was then sent back to Fort Monmouth via the depot in Baltimore, Md. The fly in the ointment, however was the JAPLATE program. Conceived in Washington , D.C. by economic intelligence anaylsists, this program required that all data plates be removed from Japanese equipment and sent to Washington. Usually done by the capturing forces, these data plates went to Washington, and also into soldiers pockets as they were ═neat souveniers╬ and could even be sent home in a letter. The equipment, to include the radios arrived at the technical intelligence company with no data plate. There was no way for them to determine if there was a design change and if there was, whether or not they were looking at an older model which had been improved or a newer model with manufacturing shortcuts due to supply. By late 1943, the JAPLATE program was scrapped but the end result was that there are many Japanese sets out there missing the data plates. The sets that are missing the MILITARY SECRET data plate, a small tag with a red background and silver letters, loose about $200.00 of their value in Japan. These data plates show up at gun shows from time to time, usually with a $10 to $35 price tag. If they are for a radio, I would suggest you get them. They may become useful in time. You may find the radio it was for! The Navy also had a technical intelligence operation called the M.E.I.U. for Mobile Explosive Investigation Unit. Composed mostly of frogmen and bomb disposal people, they were more concerned with ordnance than with radios.. The Army Air Corps/Air Forces also had a technical intelligence unit, called the T.A.I.U. for Technical Air Intelligence Unit. As you might suspect, their primary interest was the aircraft. Very little attention was given to the radios and radio related equipment. After the war, General Mc Arthur ordered all the Japanese radios destroyed. Many were but many more came home. One enterprising individual managed to send home a chest for the Type 94-6 sets with two complete radios and all the accessories. The major technical intelligence effort after the war was done by Ordnance Technical Intelligence and covered the Japanese Arms industry. Very little attention to Japanese radios. The other major investigative work done was the Strategic Bombing Survey. They produced an in-depth look at Japanese industry but only to assess the efffects of the bombing of the Japanese industrial base with no interest in historial evolution of equipment. After the war, all the reports done by the EEIS and the Signal Corps were turned over to the Department of Commerce. From there they were sent to the Library of Congress. Two of these reports have been located and copies have circulated through the collecting fraternity, the report on the Type 94-5 set and the Type 94-6 sets. Through the efforts of Bob Bolin, a former employee of the Foreign Science and Technology Center, (Established in 1963 and now merged with the National Ground Intelligence Center) many of the missing reports have been located and efforts are under way to obtain copies. As a result, there has been little written on Japanese radios until I started in 1992. There have been two up grades of a book on the subject that I first put out in 1992. As new items are located, they are photographed and put into the next revision. I have hopes of a revision in 1998 which will probably be available in early 1999. I have also been working on a series of Video tapes on these radios and when finished(?) will be made availalbe. In conclusion, I am not an expert and continue to learn, thanks to help from many people, most notabley Lou Demers, Ken Lakin, Pat Lombardi and Pat Anthony, and Leonard Hunter as well as others who have supplied information, assistance and photographs/ Several people have contacted me or Dennis while the series was running and some of their comments and observations have been included here. William L. Howard LTC Armor USAR THE WILLIAM L. HOWARD ORDNANCE TECHNICAL INTELLIGENCE MUSEUM e-mail wlhoward@gte.net Telephone AC 813 585-7756

 
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